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Music: MMU Harvard Referencing


MMU Harvard Referencing

MMU Harvard Referencing

A referencing style is a set of rules that specify how to reference different sources of information e.g. books, articles, websites etc.

Check with your tutor if you aren't sure which referencing style you should use for your assignments.

Manchester Metropolitan University


If your HE course is validated by Manchester Metropolitan University (MMU) use their MMU Harvard referencing style. 


The Basics

The most common sources you will use in your reference list will be:

  • A printed book
  • An eBook
  • A chapter from an edited book (where a book is made up of chapters written by multiple authors and edited by a single editor)
  • A journal article (online or physical)
  • A website

But there are many (many) more, which is why the referencing guide for your course referencing style will be your best friend. Each reference has a different structure.

Referencing Example

Any reference is made up of four parts:

  • Who? Author’s surname(s), Initial(s).
  • When? Year of publication
  • What? Title of Book. Edition if applicable (only if the book you are referencing is a second edition or newer)
  • Where?  Place of publication: Publisher

This information is written in the following format:

Author’s surname/s, Initial/s. (Year of publication) Title of book. Edition if applicable., Place of publication: Publisher.

For example:

Robson, C. (2014). How to do a Research Project: A Guide for Undergraduate Students. 2nd ed., Cornwall: John Wiley & Sons.

Every other reference structure is a variation of the above. It is always worth checking the guide for your course referencing style to ensure your referencing is correct.

Citation Example

A citation is when you specify the person(s) that have helped inform you on a specific topic.


For example, when you use quotations within your work, you will specify the author, date and page that this quotation came from.

e.g. (Silverman, 2018:89)

If you have paraphrased (put something in your own words) you do not need to specify a page.

e.g. (Silverman, 2018)


An in-text citation is when you might mention the author within your sentence. In this instance, you will place the place the date and page within brackets.

e.g. Silverman (2018:89) suggests that "..."

Referencing Tools

Online referencing tools help you manage referencing, cite references in your work and create bibliographies.  

You can access basic features without buying the full packages.